Temperature readings are a very useful data source. From mini weather setups to indoor readings, the thermistor sensor has many possible applications. The Arduino is a great board for gathering sensor data, being so low powered, easy to use, and giving precise controls and readings with its built in crystal oscillator.
This module has a NTC, 100k, disc thermistor. I used a 1k resistor on the output pin coming from the thermsitor.
I borrowed some code from this forum post. You may have to change some values depending on what thermistor, resistor pair you use, but that code should give you a near approximation. For a more in-depth, accurate approach, consider reading this post.